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GENERAL ENGLISH FOR BANK EXAMS
Directions: Each of the following questions containing main word in capital letters followed by four words. Select the word that is most similar in meaning to the main word in capital letters.
(c) Common place
(a) to provide support
(b) to be in disguise
(c) to mesmerise
(d) marathon race
(b) Not experienced personally
(a) To bully
(b) To chase
(c) To give a hint
(d) To revive
(a) Beautifully decorated
(b) Boldly arranged
(c) Unpleasantly gaudy
(d) Carefully prepared
1(a), 2(b), 3(c), 4(b), 5(b), 6(a), 7(a), 8(a), 9(d), 10(b), 11(c), 12(b), 13(d), 14(a), 15(b), 16(a), 17(c), 18(c), 19(d), 20(a), 21(b), 22(d), 23(c), 24(a), 25(b)
Directions: Some of the sentences are gramatically correct and some are incorrect. Find out which part of the sentence has an error and mark that part. If there is no error, mark that part as your answer.
1. Another baffling change1/ that I notice in him now-a-days2/ is that he avoids to speak to me.3/ No error4
2.He lay the watch on the table1/ and then forgot all about it2/ when he went out.3/ No error4
3. While it is apparent1/ that biotechnology offers significant benefits2/ adequate attention has not been focussed to this vital area.3/ No error4
4. There is a need1/ to revising Government policies2/ on controlling unauthorized constructions.3/ No error4
5. If you had seen1/ yesterday’s cricket I am sure2/ would have enjoyed seeing our team bat.3/ No error/4
6. When he will come1/ I will2/ make sure3/ I meet him.4/ No error5
7.The traveller being weary1/ he2/ sat by3/ woodside to rest.4/ No error5
8. He did not1/ and could not have2/ understood3/ the full facts of the case4/. No error5
9. Neither1/ Rohit nor2/ Kabir have done his3/ lesson.4/ No error5
10. I am opposed1/ to the plan of action not because2/ it is ill concieved but that3/ it seems impractical4/. No error5
11. He as well as you1/ is tired of2/ this long3/ and troublesome affair4/. No error5
12. Along the1/ northern frontier of India2/ is seen3/ the Himalayas mighty in their splendour4/. No error5
13. The recommendations of the committee1/ that the age should be lowered down2/immediately3/ was not accepted4/. No error5
14. Each of the students whom1/ I have chosen to take part2/ in the discussion have3/ indicated that he4/ will be happy to do so. No error5
15. Our country need1/ a number of2/ self sacrificing3/ and devoted political leaders4/. No error5.
16. We erect1/ monuments in the memory 2/of the great lest their achievements3/might be4/ forgetten. No error5.
17. He used rather harsh words1/ in denouncing2/ her but he must have had3/ some very strong reasons to do so4/. No error5.
18. Since he has not1/ yet attained the age of eighteen2/, he had no right3/ to vote in the present election4/. No error5
19. I am disappointed1/ in not having saw2/ any place while3/ I was in Delhi on vacation4/. No error5
20. What India needs today1/ are more scientists2/ technicians3/ and planners4/. No error5
21. No sooner did1/ the thief saw the 2/policeman than3/ he ran away4/. No error5
22. Neither the size1/ nor the colour2/ of the gloves3/ were right4/. No error5
23. If it was possible1/ to get near2/ where one of these eruptions took place3/, we could have a grand sight4/. No error5
24. Most of us are not aware1/ that2/ eating some varities3/ of mushrooms result4/ in death. No error5
25. After1/ Nepoleon had lost2/ the battle of Waterloo in 1815, he had been 3/exiled to4/ the Island of St. Helena. No error5
1(c) say ‘speaking’ for ‘to speak’,
2(a) say ‘laid’ for ‘lay’,
3(c) use ‘on’ in place of ‘to’,
4(b) to revise, 5(e) no error,
6(a) say ‘comes’ for ‘will come’,
7(b) drop ‘he’,
8(a) Add ‘understand’ after ‘did not’,
9(c) use ‘has’,
10(c) say ‘but because’,
11(e) no error,
12(c) say ‘are seen’,
13(d) say ‘were not’,
14(c) say ‘has’,
15(a) say ‘needs’,
16(d) say ‘should be’,
17(d) say ‘for doing so’,
18(c) say ‘ he has’,
19(b) say ‘in not having seen’,
20(b) say ‘is’, 21(b) say ‘see’,
22(d) say ‘was’,
23(a) say ‘if it were possible’,
24(d) say ‘results’,
25(c) say ‘was exiled’.
The following sentences consist of a word or a phrase which is written in italicised letters. Each of them is followed by four words or phrases. Select the word or the phrase which is closest to the opposite in meaning of the italicised word or phrase.
1. He was charged with abetting the murder of an innocent child.
2. Twenty point programme is aimed at alleviating the sufferings of the poor.
3. How dare you desecrate an idol of this temple.
4. Though generous and benevolent, he did not neet with success in his career.
5. There exists rancour between the two brothers.
6. Born in squalid sorroundings of the slums she rose to stardom overnight
7. Their family feud has taken ugly turn lately.
8. Indian economy is basically dependent on fickle monsoons.
9. You are advised to show clemency to the defeated army.
10. The Board of Directors showered encomium on the Chairman for his liberal policies.
11. One usually feels languid on summer noons.
12. Even a lunatic person sometimes talk intelligently.
13. Some have the habit of disparaging the success of their friend because of jealousy.
14. You are advised not to dessipate your energy on impracticable schemes.
15. At his success in the examination he felt elated.
16. Counterfeit coins are in circulation because of negligence on the part of police authorities.
17.The ministers was accused of indulging in nepotism.
18. He made several attempts to placate his opponents
19. He was always fastidious while examining answer scripts.
20. It is not difficult to take note of his immaculate style of writing.
21. The research showed that the drug has pernicious effect on the health of the patients.
22. He produced cogent reasons for the change of policy.
23. The Prime Minister’s radio broadcast galvanized the people’s spirit.
24.There are many anecdotes about his sister who is an imperious personality.
25. In facing adverse situations, he was very stoical.
1(a), 2(a), 3(c), 4(b), 5(b), 6(b), 7(a), 8(c), 9(a), 10(a), 11(a), 12(a), 13(c), 14(a), 15(b), 16(b), 17(a), 18(a), 19(b), 20(a), 21(c), 22(b), 23(c), 24(d), 25(b)
Directions: Each of the following main words in capital letters are followed by four words. Select the word that is furthest (opposite) in meaning to the main word.
(a) not in working order
(b) not in phase
(c) without problems
(d) without permission
(d) practical idea
(b) mentally alert
(a) lacking resources
(b) lacking vitality
(c) lacking clarity
(d) lacking comfort
1(c), 2(b), 3(d), 4(a), 5(a), 6(d), 7(b), 8(b), 9(d), 10(b), 11(b), 12(c), 13(a), 14(c), 15(a), 16(d), 17(a), 18(d), 19(c), 20(d), 21(d), 22(d), 23(b), 24(b), 25(c)
Directions: Four alternatives a, b, c and d are given under each sentence, you are required to select the most suitable alternative to fill in the blank/blanks in the sentence to make it meningful.
1. The volcanic................was the cause of great devastation.
2. As a result of................many unsuitable candidates were selected for the posts.
3. After a recent mild paralytic attack his movements are................restricted, otherwise he is still very active.
4. Every candidate has to poll a minimum number of votes in order to avoid................of his security.
5. My friend says that he drinks tea because it is the best................in the world.
6. My mother upset the kettle of boiling water and................her right hand badly.
7. The government is confident that the standard of living will begin to ................again soon.
8. It is becoming more and more................that the principal is losing the confidence of his staff.
9. Hindus believe that................from the cycle of birth and rebirth can be attained only by good deeds.
10. A politician’s speech must be read................the lines, it may have a double...... .
(a) behind; edge
(b) between; meaning
(c) among; ends
(d) beyond; face
11. Contemporary economic development differs................from the industrial Revolution of the 19th century.
12. ................eye-witness, the news reporter gave a graphic description of how fire broke out.
13. I will come tomorrow................I hear to the.......... .
(a) unless; contrary
(b) until; contradictory
(c) except; oppose
(d) despite; otherwise
14. Only..........people are.........after death.
(a) vicious; condemned
(b) virile; forgetten
(c) virtuous; remembered
(d) virulent; glorified
15. In one election after another, officers have been guilty of serious................of duty.
16. It is very unfortunate that the two communities which were so friendly till recently are now ................ .
(b) at daggers drawn
17. He is like a body without a soul, an eye without light or a flower without................ .
18. The deputy Manager................to resign because all his proposals were......... down by his superiors.
(a) offered; thrown
(c) began; kept
(d) willing; knocked
19. The birth of a daughter is no more a/an................occasion because education has ......... the people.
(a) magnificent; liberalised
(b) benign; esteemed
(c) ominous; enlightened
(d) propitous; blinded
20. The police was at last able to ........the ....... of her disappearance from her husband’s home.
(a) reveal; secret
(b) expose; mystery
(c) confirm; doubt
(d) solve; mystery
21. I am not................about your success because your........ approach to study is disappointing.
(a) despaired; irresolute
(b) hopeful; regular
(c) optimistic; perfunctory
(d) happy; reckless
22. The war..........immediately after the ceasefire proposal was......... bilaterally.
(a) receded; exchanged
(b) started; prepared
(c) ended; accepted
(d) extended; mitigated
23. Neena’s plea for...........fell on deaf ears as her husband was not......... enough to overtook her minor omission.
(a) clemency; gracious
(b) mercy; unkind
(c) forgiveness; pardonable
(d) apology; forgivable
24. The attempt of the robbers was................because the travellers showed enough........ .
(a) foiled; fortitude
(b) encouraged; cowardice
(c) averted; farsight
(d) checked; foresight
25. In a changing and ................unstructured business environment, creativity and innovation are being........ demanded of executives.
(a) excessively; rapidly
(b) highly; extremely
(c) increasingly; rapidly
(d) progressively; increasingly
1(b), 2(b), 3(d), 4(c), 5(c), 6(d), 7(d), 8(d), 9(b), 10(b), 11(d), 12(d), 13(a), 14(c), 15(a), 16(b), 17(b), 18(a), 19(c), 20(d), 21(c), 22(c), 23(a), 24(a), 25(d)
Directions: In the following items, some parts of the sentence have been jumbled up. You are required to re-arrange these parts which are labelled as A,B,C and D to produce the correct sentence. Choose the proper sequence.
1. So, now India can lose out at first base because it’s too busy chasing an ephemeral dream A/ either put aside its hopes of getting the veto power and B/ first concentrate on ensuring that C/ the Security council is enlarged, or D which of the following sequence is correct?
2. But Nelson Mandela modern country in a modern way A/ and could run a new B/ shifted the beliefs of the people C/ so they could heal the racial conflict D which of the following sequence is correct?
3. But Kuala Lampur where modern Malay executives A/ but will never miss Friday prayers B/ might have a cellular phone in hand C/ is a city firmly rooted in tradition D which of the following sequence is correct?
4. If farming life is not to collapse, there is need for A/ as a profession and as a way of B/ attention today to farmer’s needs in the areas C/ of water, credit, technology, market and land and agrarian reforms D which of the following sequence is correct?
5. The union cabinet’s recent approval of the Bill against A/ assaults on women’s most basic fundamental right, B/ Domestic violence is a step against C/ that is, the right to life D which of the following sequence is correct?
6. Having achieved success to ride the next outsourcing wave A/ in software exports and information technology areas, B/ this time in manufacturing from the US C/ Indian manufacturing exporters are well equipped D which of the following sequence is correct?
7. Various leading a productive A/ disabilities stand in B/ and personally satisfying life C/ the way of millions of Indians D which of the following sequence is correct?
8. Travel to where you don’t know the local language, A/ and see how your B/ a foreign country, even a region of India C/ hands and expressions do the talking D which of the following sequence is correct?
9. While the recent century show that the June rainfall is A/ of a drought, India’s rainfall data for over a B/ rain may have soothed concerns C/ no predicator of the monsoon’s outcome D which of the following sequence is correct?
10. On the contrary, in countries like China and the other Pacific countries, A/ permission for shooting but also B/ film makers not only obtain quick C/ get subsidies to undertake the job. D which of the following sequence is correct?
11. There are from different walks of life as human rights A/ so much is written by so many persons B/ very few subjects in C/ contemporary times on which. D which of the following sequence is correct?
12. No international albeit at times, for wrong reasons A/ institution has indeed B/ engaged the attention of the people C/ across the globe the way WTO has done. D which of the following sequence is correct?
13. Scientists carrying glacier feeding the Ganga may melt before the end of the 21st century A/ because of climatic changes B/ caused by man made carbon dioxide emissions C/ out a study have warned that an ancient. D which of the following sequence is correct?
14. Newspapers also highlighted the apparent lack A/ received limited media attention B/ of interest in the event in America C/ where it reportedly. D which of the following sequence is correct?
15. It is stressful or joyful A/ with the belief in evanescence of life itself B/ necessary to rise above the situations C/ and in the philosophical quest of the purpose of life. D which of the following sequence is correct?
16. The difference and development on the other affects A/ in the relationship between death and birth-rates on the one hand B/ but the age structure of the population C/ not just the rate of population growth. D which of the following sequence is correct?
17. As a maestro appeared to be enjoying every bit of it A/ and followed every composition the B/ thunderous applause from C/ an appreciative audience preceded. D which of the following sequence is correct?
18. Keeping farmers to smoke their fields during A/ in view of the prevailing weather conditions B/ agricultural experts have advised C/ the night to protect vegetables from cold. D which of the following sequence is correct?
19. If fair play fair trade and the protection of the planet, A/ is going to encompass B/ in sport’s many codes of conduct C/ these should be enshrined. D which of the following sequence is correct?
20. The majority of Britons believe that there A/ if the increasing problem B/ must be restrictions on cheap air travel C/ of global warming is going to be tackled. D which of the following sequence is correct?
21. Farmers whether or not water will be available A/ land use plans only B/ can prepare alternative C/ if they know in advance. D which of the following sequence is correct?
22. It shows it is also conscious of its A/ India means business, B/ sovereignty and elements that threaten it C/ while it is for transparent and open ties. D which of the following sequence is correct?
23. Hidden is an important cause for A/ hunger in the soil B/ caused by micro-nutrient deficiencies C/ the rapid decline in factor productivity. D which of the following sequence is correct?
A Close look at the facts relating to political interference in administration shows that it is not a one-way process. There is often a nexus between power hungry and corrupt politicians and civil servants with convenient principles. Many civil servants are only too anxious to oblige the politicians, and then cash the obligation when they need some special favour. So the attitude of self-righteousness adopted by the civil service is sometimes only a way of covering their own flaws by blaming others.
Every now and then some retired civil servants come out with his memoirs, painting a glorious picture of the heights of administrative efficiency reached during his reign. There is often the suggestion that had there not been so much political interference, things would have been even more fantastic. It is not unusual for the self styled hero to blame not only interfering politicians but also fellow civil servants who are idiots or crooks, for his failures. This attitude of smug self-satisfaction is, unfortunately, developed during the years of service. Self preservation rather than service is encouraged by our whole system of rules and procedures.
The remedy has to be drastic and quickly effective. The over protection now granted to civil servants must end. Today to remove an erring civil servant is just not possible. And the only thing that the highest authority in the Government, both in the State and at the Centre, can do is to transfer an official from one job to another. The rules for taking disciplinary action are so complicated that, in the end, the defaulting civil servants gets away, and gets his full emoluments even for the period of the disciplinary proceedings, thus making it a paid holiday for him.
The result is that the administration has become rule-oriented and not result-oriented. Action is possible against the official who takes some interest in his work, but no action is ever taken against a person who does not deliever the goods. If the country is to adopt a result-oriented approach, it is necessary to link job performance with job retention.
1. The facts relating to the problem of political interference indicate that:
(a) honest bureaucrats are always being troubled by politicians.
(b) politicians are often misled and trapped by civil servants.
(c) politicians and civil servants co-operate to gain mutual advantages.
(d) politicians and civil servants use interference as an excuse for victimising the common man.
2. The attitude of self-righteousness adopted by the civil service, according to the writer:
(a) is not welcomed and supported by politicians.
(b) is dishonest and conceals the facts.
(C) is very difficult to maintain because of opposition.
(d) does not really help the public get fair treatment.
3. Civil servants who write their memoirs after retiring:
(a) claim that they would have achieved outstanding success if interference had not come in the way.
(b) prove that constant political interference made it impossible for them to do anything properly.
(c) complain that the credit for their achievements goes to dishonest politicians.
(d) prove that people of inferior quality in the civil service bring about interference.
4. The existing system of administration seems to encourage civil servants:
(a) to become self-styled heroes and boss over others.
(b) to present a glorious picture of the administration.
(c) to become self-centred and concerned mainly about their own gain.
(d) to become self-righteous and fight back against corrupt politicians.
5. The problem with the present set-up needing urgent action is:
(a) a lack of accountability on the part of civil servants.
(b) a lack of control over the power of politicians.
(c) a neglect of the ideals of self-righteousness.
(d) complicated rules and procedures that greatly reduce efficiency.
6. The main principle of the remedy proposed by the writer is, that:
(a) the politicians should be made accountable for all their decisions.
(b) the high level of protection enjoyed by civil servants should be reduced.
(c) the common man’s right to efficient and fair administration must be protected.
(d) rules should be simplified so that there is less scope for misuse.
7. According to existing procedures, if a civil servant is found to be unsuitable or dishonest:
(a) he can appeal to an authority like the Supreme Court.
(b) politicians with whom he has special links will interfere to help him.
(c) transfering him to another post is the usual action taken.
(d) a conflict between Central Government and State Government interests can arise.
8. The writer refers to a paid holiday to support his argument that:
(a) civil servants get a lot of extra benefits.
(b) disciplinary action is generally not quick or effective.
(c) lazy and inefficient bureaucrats seem to be on holiday even when on duty.
(d) special postings that favoured civil servants are necessary and wasteful.
9. The expression linking job performance with job retention refers to a policy in which:
(a) selection to civil service jobs is on the basis of rigorous performance tests.
(b) selection to civil service jobs is on the basis of rigorous performance and not a minister’s opinion is the basis of transfer or promotion.
(c) retention of good government servants by discouraging their going to private companies.
(d) continuation in service will depend on satisfactory performance.
10. The expression deliver the goods means:
(a) show good job performance
(b) accept bribes or other illegal favours.
(c) make payments of black money as bribes.
(d) successfully defend oneself against a charge, in a disciplinary inquiry.
It is a strange that, according to his position in life, an extravagant man is admired or despised. A successful businessman does nothing to increase his popularity by being careful with his money. He is expected to display his success, to have smart car, an expensive life, and to be lavish with his hospitality. If he is not so, he is considered mean and his reputation in business may even suffer in consequence. The paradox remains that if he had not been careful with his money in the first place, he would never have achieved his present wealth. Among the two income groups, a different set of values exists. The young clerk who makes his wife a present of a new dress when he hadn’t paid his house rent, is condemned as extravagant. Carefullness with money to the point of meanness is applauded as a virtue. Nothing in his life is considered more worthy than paying his bills. The ideal wife for such a man separates her housekeeping money into joyless little piles- so much for rent, for food, for the children’s shoes; she is able to face the milkman with equanimity and never knows the guilt of buying something she can’t really afford. As for myself, I fall into neither of these categories. If I have money to spare, I can be extravagant, but when, as is usually the case, I am hard up, then I am the meanest man imaginable.
1. In the opinion of the writer, a successful businessman:
(a) is more popular if he appears to be doing nothing.
(b) should not bother about his popularity.
(c) must be extravagant before achieving success.
(d) is expected to have expensive tastes.
2. The phrase lavish with his hospitatlity signifies:
(a) miserliness in dealing with his friends.
(b) considerateness in spending on guests and strangers.
(c) extravagance in entertaining guests.
(d) indifference in treating his friends and relatives.
3. We understand from the passage that:
(a) all mean people are wealthy
(b) wealthy people are invariably successful.
(c) carefulness generally leads to failure.
(d) thrift may lead to success.
4. It seems that low paid people should:
(a) not pay their bills promptly.
(b) not keep their creditors waiting.
(c) borrow money to meet their essential needs
(d) feel guilty if they overspend
5. The word paradox means:
(a) statement based on facts.
(b) that which brings out the inner meaning.
(c) that which is contrary to received opinion.
(d) statement based on the popular opinion.
6. How does the housewife, described by the writer, feel when she saves money?
(a) is content to be so thrifty.
(b) wishes life were less burdensome.
(c) is still troubled by a sense of guilt.
(d) wishes she could sometimes be extravagant.
7.Which of the following is opposite in meaning to the word applauded in the passage?
8. The statement she is able to face the milkman with equanimity implies that:
(a) she is not upset as she has been paying the milkman his dues regularly.
(b) she loses her nerve at the sight of the milkman who always demands his dues.
(c) she manages to keep cool as she has to pay the milkman who always demads his dues.
(d) she remains composed and confident as she knows that she can handle the milkman tactfully.
9. As far as money is concerned, we get the impression that the writer:
(a) is incapable of saving anything
(b) is never inclined to be extravagant
(c) would like to be considered extravagant
(d) doesn’t often have any money to save.
10. Which of the following would be the most suitable title for the passage?
(a) Extravagance leads to poverty
(b) Miserly habits of the poor.
(c) Extravagance in the life of the rich and the poor.
(d) Extravagance is always condemnable.
The capitalist system of society does not foster healthy relations among human beings. A few people own all the means of production and others- though nominally few have to sell their labour under conditions imposed upon them. The emphasis of capitalism being on the supreme importance of material wealth the intensity of its appeal is to the acquisitive intensity. It promotes worship of economic power with little regard to the means employed for its acquisition and the end that it serves. By its exploitation of human beings to the limits of endurance its concentration is on the largest profit rather than maximum production. Thus the division of human family is done on the basis of economic circumstance. All this is injurious to division of human dignity. And when the harrowed poor turn to the founders of religion for succour, they rather offer a subtle defence for the established order. They promise future happiness for their present suffering and conjure up visions of paradise to redress the balance to soothe the suffering and the revolt of the tortured men. The system imposes injustice, the religion justifies it.
1. The passage indicates that the capitalist system is:
2. The established order is supproted by religion to:
(a) alleviate the suffering of the poor in the capitalist system.
(b) perpetuate the injustice imposed by the capitalist system.
(c) balance the suffering of the poor with hopes of future rewards.
(d) help the tortured men to seek redress.
3. In a capitalist system:
(a) the means justify the ends.
(b) the ends justify the means.
(c) the means endorsed by religion are strictly followed.
(d) means which lead to exploitation are strictly prohibited
4. Capitalism is injurious to human relations because it divides society into two groups:
(a) working and non-working
(b) exploiters and exploited
(c) religious and irreligious
(d) buyers and sellers
5. In a capitalistic system of society each man wishes:
(a) to acquire maximum wealth.
(b) to produce maximum wealth.
(c) to have visions of paradise.
(d) to soothe the sufferings of other.
Now the question arises, what is the secret of the longevity and imperishability of Indian culture? Why is it that such great empires and nations is Babylion, Assyria, Greece, Rome and Persia, could not last more than the footprints of a camel m the shifting sands of the desert, while India which faced the same ups and downs, the same mighty and cruel hand of time, is still alive and with the same halo of glory and splendour ? The answer is given by Prof. J. B. Pratt of America. According to him Hindu religion is the only religion in the world which is 'self-perpetuating and self-renewing.' Unlike other religions 'not death, but development' has been the fate of Hinduism. Not only Hindu religion but the whole culture of the Hindus has been growing changing and developing in accordance with the needs of time and circumstance without losing its essential and imperishable spirit. The culture of the vedic ages, of the ages of the Upanishads, the philosophical systems, the Mahabharata, the Smirities, the Puranas, the commentators, the medieval ^aints and of the age of the modern reformers is the same in Spirit and yet very different in form. Its basic principles are so broad based that they can be adapted to almost any environment of development.
1. The author has compared India with all the following except-
2. In what respect is India implied to be superior to all other nations and empires ?
(A) Material development
(B) Cultural advancement
(C) Military strength
(D) Territorial expansion
(E) Empire building
3. What, according to J. B. Pratt, is the secret of the longevity and imperishability of Indian culture ?
(A) It has its origin in the remote past
(B) It issues from the minds and hearts of its sages
(C) It is self-perpetuating and self-renewing
(D) It is founded on religion
(E) It is founded on morality
4. Which of the following has not been mentioned as a particular period of Indian culture ?
(A) The Vedic age
(B) The age of Upanishads
(C) The age of the Mahabharata :
(D) The British period
(E) The age of the Puranas
5. What changes has the spirit of Indian culture undergone during its long history right from the vedic age down to the present times ?
(A) The precedence of moral values was eclipsed at certain periods of time
(B) Materialism was the hall-mark of Indian culture during certain periods of time
(C) During certain periods military development was the be-all and end-all of Indian culture
(D) There is no such thing as any spirit of Indian culture
(E) The spirit of Indian culture has practically been the same from the ancient times down to the present
6. What according to the author has always characterised the Hindu religion ?
(C) Sometimes development and sometimes stagnation
(D) Lack of moral values
(E) 1 Precedence of material over moral values
7. Which other religion has been mentioned in the passage as self-developing and self-renewing as Hindu religion ?
(E) None of these
8. "Could not last more than the footprints of a camel on the shifting sands of the desert." What does it mean ?
(A) It lost itself in deserts
(B) It was transient
(C) It lacked solidity
(D) It was limited only to desert areas
(E) It lacked cohesion
9. What is the characteristic quality of the basic principles of Indian culture ?
(A) They are static
(B) They derive their strength from thegenius of the people
(C) They can be adapted almost to any environment of development
(D) They believe in the purity of Indian culture
(E) Nothing of these
10. Which of the following may be the best title of the passage ?
(A) Unity of Indian Culture
(B) Indian Civilization and Culture
(C) Indian Religion and Civilization
(D) Characteristics of Indian Culture
(E) Development of Indian Culture
Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage:
11. Longevity :
(A) Living long
(B) Diseased life
(C) Depressed spirit
(D) The period of living
13. Ups and downs :
(A) Joys and sorrows
(B) Weal and woe
(C) Successes and failures
(D) Jerks and jolts
(E) Merits and demerits
Pick out the most appropriate word exactly opposite in meaning of the following words taken from the above passage:
What is immediately needed today is the establishment of a World Government or an International Federation of Mankind. It is the utmost necessity of the world today, and all those persons who wish to see all human beings happy and prosperous naturally feel it keenly. Of course, at times, we all feel that many of our problems of our political, social and cultural life would come to an end if there were one Government all over the world. Travellers, businessmen, seekers of knowledge and teachers of righteousness know very well that great impediments and obstructions are faced by them when they pass from one country to another, exchange goods, get informa-tion, and make an effort to spread their good gospel among their fellow-men. In the past religious sects divided one set of people against another, colour of the skin or construction of the body set one against the other. But today when philosophical light has exploded the darkness that was created by religious differences, and when scientific knowledge has falsified the theory of social superiority and when modern inventions have enabled human beings of all religious views and of all races and colours to come in frequent contact with one another, it is the governments of various countries that keep people of one country apart from those of another. They create artificial barriers, unnatural distinctions, unhealthy isola-tion, unnecessary fears and dangers in the minds of the common men who by their nature want to live in friendship with their fellow-men. But all these evils would cease to exist if there were one Government all over the world.
1. What is the urgent need of the world today ?
(A) The establishment of an international economic order
(B) The establishment of a world government
(C) The creation of a cultured international social order
(D) The raising of an international spiritual army
(E) The development of healthy relations among the various countries of the world
2. The people who face impediments and obstructions when they pass from one country to another and do a lot of good jobs are all the following except:
(C) Seekers of knowledge
(D) Teachers of righteousness
(E) Empire builders
3. In the past religious sects :
(A) United the people with one another
(B) Divided one set of people from another
(C) Did a good job by way of spreading message of love and peace
(D) Interfered in political affairs
(E) Kept away from political affairs
4. What was the factor that set one man against another ?
(A) Material prosperity of certain people in the midst of grinding poverty
(B) Superior physical strength of some persons
(C) Colour of the skin or construction of the body
(D) Some people being educated and other illiterate
(E) Psychological barriers
5. The theory of racial superiority stands falsi fied today by:
(A) Scientific knowledge
(B) The ascendancy of a people who were here-tofore considered of inferior racial stock
(C) The achievements of the so-calledinferior races in every field of life
(D) The precedence given to physical prowess which the so-called inferior races possess and the so-called superior races lack
(E) None of the above factors
6. What will the world Government be expected to do?
(A) It will bring about universal happiness and prosperity
(B) It will end all wars for all time to come
(C) It will bring about a moral regeneration of mankind
(D) It will kill the satan that is in man
(E) It will arrange for interplanetary contacts
7. Which of the following problems has not been mentioned in the passage as likely to be solved with the establishment of world Government ?
(A) Social problems
(B) Political problems
(C) Cultural problems
(D) Economic problems
(E) None of these
8. What or what divide/divides people of onecountry against another ?
(A) Different religions.
(B) Different languages.
(C) Different social and political systems of different people.
(D) Material advancement of a few nationswith imperialistic leanings.
(E) Government of various countries.
9. What do the government of various countriesdo to keep people of one country apart fromthose of another?
(A) They create artificial barriers.
(B) They create unnatural distinctions.
(C) They foster unhealthy isolation.
(D) They create unnecessary fears anddangers in the minds of the people.
(E) All of them.
10. The most appropriate title of the abovepassage may be:
(A) The Evils Nurtured by National Governments.
(B) The Unity of the World.
(C) The Need of World Government.
(D) The Role of Religion in the ModernTimes.
(E) Explosion of the Theory of RacialSuperiority.
Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage:
12. Necessity :
13. Righteousness :
(D) Machine made
Pick out the most appropriate word exa opposite in meaning (antonym) of the following, words taken from the above passage :
16. Prosperous :
17. Impediments :
19. Differences :
20. Superiority :
One of the main reasons of corruption in elections today is the lure of power which haunts the politicians so much that they feel no qualms of conscience in adopting any underhand method to come out successful. The Watergate Scandal in the U.S.A. is an eloquent example to testify to the fact how even the top level politicians can stoop to the lowest level in order to maintain themselves in power. Who does not remember how Adolf Hitler rode roughshod overall canons of electoral pro-priety to capture power ? In India also the record of the various political parties is not clean. Corruption thrives in elections because those in the field play on the psychology of the electorate. The voters are swayed by the tall promises of the candidates to whose machinations they fall an easy prey. They are also susceptible to fall an easy prey to the adulations of the politicians due to their illiteracy. Besides, in the representative democracies today and particularly in big countries the constituencies are quite extensive obviating the possibility of corrupt practices being discovered. Anti-corruption laws are honored more in their breach than in their observance. Even the code of conduct to be observed by the parties fighting the elections becomes a dead letter in as much as it is jettisoned out of existence and thrown unscrupulously over board by the unfair politicians whose only aim is to maintain themselves in the saddle.
1. The politicians indulge in corruption in elections now-a-days because :
(A) Of lure of power
(B) Lure of money
(C) Elections can be won only by corrupt means
(D) Corrupt practices in elections go unno ticed
(E) Morality in it is a discount in every field of life today
2. Which example of the U.S.A. testifies to the fact that even the top level people can stoop very low in order to maintain themselves in power ?
(A) The New Deal
(B) The Watergate Scandal
(C) The Philadelphia Contract
(D) The Washington Agreement
(E) None of these
3. Adolf Hitler came to power :
(A) As a result of bungling in elections
(B) By liquidating any semblance of opposition
(C) By organising a mass movement
(D) With foreign help
(E) By conquest
4. How does corruption thrive in elections?
(A) The people themselves are corrupt
(B) A sizable part of the society is corrupt
(C) There is natural connection between elections and corruption
(D) The politicians exploit the electorate psychologically
(E) The politicians cheat the electorate economically
5. Why according to the writer do the voters fall an easy prey to the machinations of the politicians ?
(A) They want to self their votes because of poverty
(B) They are illiterate and do not understand what designs the politicians have at the back of their tall promises
(C) They are coward and submit to the threats of physical violence held out by the cronies of the politicians
(D) They are totally indifferent to what happens on the political horizon
(E) They have no political knowledge worth the name
6. Why according to the writer, do the corrupt practices indulged in elections go unnoticed ?
(A) Because nobody is interested in discovering corrupt practices
(B) Because vested interests shield those who indulge in corrupt practices
(C) Because constituencies are so small that the politicians take the electorate, whose number is very limited, into confidence
(D) Because the law enforcing
authorities themselves are in collusion with the politicians
(E) Because the constituencies are so big that it becomes difficult to discover the corrupt practices
7. What happens to the anti-corrpution laws ?
(A) There is actually no such things as anti-corruption laws
(B) Anti-corruption laws are certainly honoured but in a limited way
(C) Anti-corruption laws are honoured more in their breach than in their observance
(D) The Government does not want to enforce anti-corruption laws
(E) Anti-corruption laws are simply an eye wash just to hoodwink the masses
8. What happens to the code of conduct?
(A) It is not observed at all
(B) It is observed only in a very limited way
(C) It is prepared in such a way that it leaves loop holes for the practice of corruption in elections
(D) The machinery devised to enforce the code of conduct is defective
(E) There is no such thing as code of conduct
9. 'To maintain themselves in the saddle' means :
(A) To remain in state of preparedness
(B) To be ready to run whenever danger is apprehended
(C) To retain power in their hands by continuing in office
(D) To play an unfair game
(E) To oust the opposition at every cost
10. Which one of the following may be the most appropriate title to the above passage ?
(A) Corruption in Public Life
(B) Corruption in High Places
(C) Politicians Game of Power
(D) Elections and Corruption
(E) The True Character of a Politician
Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage :
(D) Out spoken
(A) To bend
(B) To yield to temptation
(C) To injure
(D) To inure
(E) To adapt
(E) None of these
Pick out the most appropriate word exactly opposite in meaning (antonym) of the following words taken from the above passage:
16. Haunts :
19. Extensive :
On the death of Alexander the great his vast empire was almost immediately broken up into three main divisions. In the East, his General Seleucus Nikator founded an empire comprising Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and part of Asia Minor, that is, almost all the area from the Hellespont to the Indus. The capital of this empire was Antioch, which became one of the greatest commercial centres of those times, through which merchandise for Arabia, India and China flowed into the Mediterranean.
The second division of the Alexandrian empire was the Graeco-Egyptian kingdom founded by Ptolemy I, another general of Alexander. Its chief city was Alexandria which, with its safe harbour and splendid library, became for a long time the most important centre of Greek civilization and culture in the ancient world.
The third and the smallest division was Macedon, ruled by Autigonus and his successor, who had partial control over Greece till 146 B.C. In that, year Greece was made a Roman province under name of Achaea. Later, both Syria and Egypt were also conquered by the Romans.
1. When Alexander died, his empire :
(A) Was disintegrated to several pieces.
(B) Was broken into three divisions.
(C) Was expanded by his son.
(D) Went totally out of existence.
(E) Did not die but remained intact tocontinue for several centuries thereafter.
2. Seleucus Nikator founded an empire in the :
3. Which of the following was not included inthe empire of Seleucus Nikator ?
(E) Part of Asia Minor
4. The capital of Seleucus Nikator's empire was :
5. The second division of Alexandrian empire was:
(A) Babylonian kingdom
(B) Graeco-Turkish kingdom
(C) Assyrian kingdom
(D) Graeco-Egyptian kingdom
6. The second division of Alexandrian empire was founded by :
(A) Alexander's eldest son
(B) Alexander's youngest son
(C) Alexander's grandson
(D) Ptolemy I
(E) A Mesopotamian prince
7. The chief city of Graeco-Egyptian kingdomwas :
8. Which of the following cities was for a longtime the most important centre of Greek civilization and culture in the ancient world ?
9. Who was Antigonus ?
(A) The General who was responsible for thedeath of Alexander
(B) The great warrior to whom goes the credit of successes in Alexander's military expeditions
(C) He was the founder of the third division of Alexandrian empire, known as Macedon
(D) The Roman emperor who conquered Greece and annexed it into the Romanempire
(E) The fictitious king of Greece, who figures in the tragedies of Sophocles
10. When did Greece become a Roman province ?
(A) In 326 BC
(B) In 186 BC
(C) In 206BC
(D) In 171 BC
(E) In 146 BC
Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage:
11. Comprising :
12. Splendid :
13. Immediately :
(B) Entered into
(C) Filled with
(D) Flushed with
15. Conquerred :
Pick out the most appropriate word exactly opposite in meaning (antonym) of the following words taken from the passage :
16. Broken up :
(A) Split up
(B) Joined up
17. Founded :
19. Successors :
What are the good parts of our civilization ? First and foremost there are order and safety. If today I have a quarrel with another man, I do not get beaten merely because I am physically weaker and he can kick me down. I go to law, and the law will decide as fairly as it can between the two of us. Thus in disputes between man and man right has taken the place of might. Moreover, the law protects me from robbery and violence. Nobody may come and break into my house, steal my goods or run off with my children. Of course, there are burglars, but they are very rare, and the law punishes them whenever it catches them.
It is difficult for us to realize how much this safety means. Without safety these higher acti-vities of mankind which make up civilization could not go on. The inventor could not invent, the scientist find out or the artist make beautiful things. Hence, order and safety, although they are not themselves civilization are things without which civilization would be impossible. They are as necessary to our civilization as the air we breathe is to us; and we have grown so used to them that we do not notice them any more than we notice the air.
Another great achievement of our civilization is that today civilized men are largely free from the fear of pain. They still fall ill, but illness is no longer the terrible thing it used to be.... Not only do men and women enjoy better health; they live longer than they ever did before, and they have a much better chance of growing up.... Thirdly, our civilization is more secure than any that have gone before it. This is because it is much more widely spread.... Previous civilizations were specialized and limited, they were like oases in a desert.
1. What is the first merit of our civilization ?
(A) Material advancement
(B) Cultural advancement
(C) Development of science
(D) Order and safety
(E) Spiritualism has become a way of life
2. Now-a-days a physically weak man is provided protection by :
(A) The group whose membership he opts for
(B) The law
(C) His wit and wisdom
(D) His cunningness
(E) His friend and supporters
3. In olden days the rule of life was :
(E) None of these
4. The essential condition for the promotion of higher activities of life is:
(A) Dedication on the part of those who practise them
(B) Economic freedom
(D) State support
(E) Encouragement and appreciation
5. What according to the author, is the second merit of the present civilization?
(A) Development of means of transport and communication
(B) Space research
(C) Freedom from drudgery
(D) Freedom from the fear of pain
(E) Mental enlightenment of the people
6. What according to the author has the freedom from the fear of pair led to ?
(A) Better health
(B) Devotion to duty
(C) Abundant leisure
(D) Increased cultural pursuits
(E) None of these
7. The third merit of the present civilization, according to the author, is:
(A) The present civilization is founded on justice
(B) The present civilization has liberal outlook on life
(C) The present civilization has provided more leisure
(D) The present civilization is more wide spread in the sense that large number of people are civilized now than ever before
(E) The present civilization is more secure than any that has gone before
8. 'They were like oases in a desert' what does it mean ?
(A) Previous civilizations were more attractive than the present civilization
(B) Previous civilizations were confined to a very limited area while barbarians were far larger in number
(C) Previous civilizations were shortlived
(D) Previous civilizations were attractive from outside only
(E) Previous civilizations were nature based
9. The present civilization :
(A) Begins from 15th century
(B) Begins from 16th century
(C) Begins from 17th century
(D) Begins from 18th century
(E) Has no fixed date for its inception
10. The most appropriate title to the above passage may be:
(A) The merits of the Previous Civilizations
(B) The Defects of the Present Civilizations
(C) Merits and Demerits of the Present Civilizations
(D) The Limitations of the Previous Civilizations
(E) The Wonder That is the Modern Civilization
Pick out the most appropriate equivalent (synonym) of the following words taken from the above passage :
Pick out the most appropriate words exactly opposite in meaning of the following words taken from the above passage :
(A) Hind most
17. Protects :
(C) Broad based
A recent report in News Week says that in American colleges, students of Asian origin outperform not only the minority group students but the majority whites as well. Many of these students must be of Indian origin, and their achievement is something we can be proud of. It is unlikely that these talented youngsters will come back to India, and that is the familiar brain drain problem. However recent statements by the nation's policy-makers indicate that the perception of this issue is changing. 'Brain bank' and not 'brain drain' is the more appropriate idea, they suggest since the expertise of Indians abroad is only deposited in other places and not lost.
This may be so, but this brain bank, like most other banks, is one that primarily serves customers in its neighbourhood. The skills of the Asians now excelling in America's colleges will mainly help the U.S.A.. No matter how significant, what non-resident Indians do for India and what their counterparts do for other Asian lands is only a by-product.
But it is also necessary to ask, or be reminded, why Indians study fruitfully when abroad. The Asians whose accomplishments News Week records would have probably had a very different tale if they had studied in India. In America they found elbow room, books and facilities not available and not likely to be available here. The need to prove themselves in their new country and the competition of an international standard they faced there must have cured mental and physical laziness. But other things helping them in America can be obtained here if we achieve a change in social attitudes, specially towards youth.
We need to learn to value individuals and their unique qualities more than conformity and respectability. We need to learn the language of encouragement to add to our skill in flattery. We might also learn to be less liberal with blame and less tightfisted with appreciation, especially.
1. Among the many groups of students in American colleges, Asian students :
(a) are often written about in magazines like News Week.
(b) are most successful academically.
(c) have proved that they are as good as the whites.
(d) have only a minority status like the blacks.
2. The student of Asian origin in America include :
(a) a fair number from India.
(b) a small group from India.
(c) persons from India who are very proud.
(d) Indians who are the most hard working of all.
3. In general, the talented young Indians studying in America :
(a) have a reputation for being hard working.
(b) have the opportunity to contribute to India's development.
(c) can solve the brain drain problem because of recent changes in policy.
(d) will not return to pursue their careers in India.
4. There is talk now of the 'brain bank'. This idea :
(a) is a solution to the brain drain problem.
(b) is a new problem caused partly by the brain drain.
(c) is a new way of looking at the role of qualified Indians living abroad.
(d) is based on a plan to utilize foreign exchange remittances to stimulate research and development.
5. The brain bank has limitations like all banks in the sense that:
(a) a bank's services go mainly to those near it.
(b) small neighbourhood banks are not visible in this age of multinationals.
(c) only what is deposited can be withdrawn and utilized.
(d) no one can be forced to put his assets in a bank.
6. The author feels that what non-resident Indians do for India :
(a) will have many useful side effects.
(b) will not be their main interest and concern.
(c) can benefit other Asian countries, as a by-product.
(d) can American colleges be of service to the world community.
7. The performance of Indians when they go to study in the West:
(a) shows the fruits of hardwork done by school teachers in India.
(b) should remind us that knowledge and wisdom are not limited by the bounda-ries of race and nation.
(c) is better than people in the West expect of non-whites.
(d) is better than what it would have been if they had studied in India.
8. The high level of competition faced by Asian students in America :
(a) helps them overcome their lazy habits.
(b) makes them lazy since the facilities there are good.
(c) makes them worried about failing.
(d) helps them prove that they are as good as whites.
9. The author feels that some of the conditions other than the level of facilities that make the West attractive :
(a) are available in India but young people do not appreciate them.
(b) can never be found here because we believe in conformity.
(c) can be created if our attitudes and values change.
(d) can also give respectability to our traditions and customs.
10. One of the ways of making the situation in India better would be :
(a) to eliminate flattery from public life.
(b) to distinguish between conformity and respectability.
(c) to give appreciation and not be tightfisted.
(d) to encourage people and not merely flatter them.
True, it is the function of the army to maintain law and order in abnormal times. But in normal times there is another force that compels citizens to obey the laws and to act with due regard to the rights of others. The force also protects the lives and the properties of law abiding men. Laws are made to secure the personal safety of its subjects and to prevent murder and crimes of violence. They are made to secure the property of the citizens against theft and damage to protect the rights of communities and castes to carry out their customs and ceremonies, so long as they do not conflict with the rights of others. Now the good citizen, of his own free will obey these laws and he takes care that everything he does is done with due regard to the rights and well-being of others. But the bad citizen is only restrained from breaking these laws by fear of the consequence of his actions. And the necessary steps to compel the bad citizen to act as a good citizen are taken by this force. The supreme control of law and order in a State is in the hands of a Minister who is responsible to the State Assembly and acts through the Inspector General of Police.
1. The expression 'customs and ceremonies' means :
(a) fairs and festivals.
(b) habits and traditions.
(c) usual practices and religious rites.
(d) superstitions and formalities.
2. A suitable title for the passage would be :
(a) the function of the army.
(b) laws and the people's rights.
(c) the fear of the law and citizen's security.
(d) the functions of the police.
3. Which of the following is not implied in the passage?
(a) Law protects those who respect it.
(b) Law ensures people's religious and social rights absolutely and unconditionally.
(c) A criminal is deterred from committing crimes only for fear of the law.
(d) The forces of law help to transform irresponsible citizens into responsible ones.
4. According to the writer, which one of the following is not the responsibility of the police?
(a) To protect the privileges of all citizens.
(b) To check violent activities of citizens.
(c) To ensure peace among citizens by safeguarding individual rights.
(d) To maintain peace during extraordinary circumstances.
5. Which of the following reflects the main thrust of the passage?
(a) It deals with the importance of the army in maintaining law and order.
(b) It highlights role of the police as superior to that of the army.
(c) It discusses the roles of the army and the police in different circumstances.
(d) It points to the responsibility of the Minister and the Inspector General of Police.
6. "They are made to secure die property of citizens against theft and damage", means that the law :
(a) helps in recovering the stolen property of the citizens.
(b) assist the citizens whose property has been stolen or destroyed.
(c) initiate process against offenders of law.
(d) safeguard people's possessions against being stolen or lost.
7. Out of the following which one has the opposite meaning to the word 'restrained' in the passage?
8. Which one of the following statement is implied in the passage?
(a) Peaceful citizens seldom violate the law, but bad citizens have to be restrained by the police.
(b) Criminals, who flout the law, are seldom brought to book.
(c) The police hardly succeed in converting bad citizens into good citizens.
(d) The police check the citizens, whether they are good or bad, from violating the law.
9. Which of the following statements expresses most accurately the idea contained in the first sentence?
(a) It is the job of the army to ensure internal peace at all times.
(b) It is the police that should always enforce law and order in the country.
(c) Army and the police ensure people's security through combined operations.
(d) It is in exceptional circumstances that the army has to ensure peace in the country. :
10. The last sentence of the passage implies that:
(a) The Inspector General of Police is the sole authority in matters of law and order.
(b) In every State maintenance of public peace is under the overall control of the responsible Minister.
(c) A Minister and a responsible State, Assembly exercise direct authority in matters pertaining to law and order.
(d) The Inspector General of Police is responsible to the State Assembly for maintaining law and order.
The first step is for us to realise that a city need not be a frustrater of life; it can be among other things, a mechanism for enhancing life, for producing possibilities of living which are not to be realized except through cities. But, for that to happen, deliberate and drastic planning is needed. Towns as much as animals, must have their systems of organs-those for transport and circulation are an obvious example. What we need now are organ systems for recreation, leisure, culture, community expression. This means abundance of open space, easy access to unspoilt Nature, beauty in parks and in fine buildings, gymnasia and swimming baths and recreation grounds in planty, central spaces for celebrations and demonstrations, halls for citizens' meetings, concert halls and theatres and cinemas that belong to the city. And the buildings must not be built anyhow or dumped down anywhere; both they and their groupings should mean something important to the people of the place.
1. Cities can be made to provide full facilities for life, only if : :
(a) these can be mechanically developed.
(b) proper transport system is introduced.
(c) cinemas, theatres and concert halls are established there.
(d) these are thoughtfully and vigorously designed to serve people's needs.
2. A suitable title for the passage would be :
(a) Towns versus Animals.
(b) The Need for Planned Cities.
(c) Transport and Communication System in a City.
(d) The Need for Entertainment Centres in a City.
3. "A city need not be a frustrater of life" means that:
(a) one does not expect fulfilment of all life's requirements from a city.
(b) city life provides all the essential needs of life.
(c) a city does not necessarily lift man's standard of living.
(d) a city should not defeat the fulfilment of life's aspirations and aims.
4. Which one of the following has the opposite meaning to the word 'frustrater' in the passage?
5. "The building must not be built anyhow or dumped down anywhere"....the statement implies that building :
(a) should be built with suitable material.
(b) should be constructed, according to some suitable design, not indiscriminately.
(c) should be scattered to provide for more of open space.
(d) should be built to enable citizens to enjoy nature.
6. The word 'drastic' in the passage means :
7. The author talks about 'Unspoilt Nature'. In what way can Nature remain unspoilt?
(a) If Nature is not allowed to interfere with people's day-to-day life.
(b) By building cities with the system of organs like those of animals.
(c) By allowing free access to parks and open spaces.
(d) By allowing Nature to retain its primitive, undomesticated character.
8. According to the author, the function of a city is to :
(a) provide adequate community expression.
(b) make available centres of recreation and public gatherings.
(c) facilitate traffic and communication.
(d) raise the tone of life and make it more meaningful.
9. The opening sentence of the passage implies that :
(a) the possibilities of living a decent life cannot be found in a city.
(b) only a city can provide the means to lead a full life.
(c) among other places, a city can also help man to lead a successful life.
(d) a city provides better opportunities for good living than a village.